Black holes are mysterious, strangest and fascinating objects existing in space. A black hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light can not get out. NASA states that the name black hole is misnomer. A black hole is anything but empty space. Rather, it is a great amount of matter packed into a very small area – think of a star ten times more massive than the Sun squeezed into a sphere approximately the diameter of New York City. The result is a gravitational field so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape.Black holes were predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity in 1916,the term “black hole” was coined many years later in 1967 by American astronomer John Wheeler , which showed that when a massive star dies, it leaves behind a small, dense remnant core. If the core’s mass is more than about three times the mass of the Sun, the equations showed, the force of gravity overwhelms all other forces and produces a black hole.Most black holes form from the remnants of a large star that dies in a supernova explosion.Smaller stars become dense neutron stars,black holes are created when a massive star reaches the end of its life and implodes, collapsing in on itself i.e stellar death.There are four types of black holes: stellar, intermediate, supermassive, and miniature.
•Stellar black hole : When a star burns through the last of its fuel, the object may collapse, or fall into itself. For smaller stars (those up to about three times the sun’s mass), the new core will become a neutron star or a white dwarf. But when a larger star collapses, it continues to compress and creates a stellar black hole.
°Intermediate : Intermediate black holes are those which have a mass somewhere between stellar and supermassive black holes.
Intermediate-mass black holes are thought to form when multiple stellar-mass black holes undergo a series of mergers with one another.class of black hole with mass in the range 10²–10⁵ solar masses: significantly more than stellar black holes but less than the 10⁵–10⁹ solar mass supermassive black holes.
°Supermassive :The largest black holes are called supermassive.It was predicted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity, can have masses equal to billions of sun.It may somehow result of hundreds and thousands of tiny merged black holes.There are few disagreements regarding progenitors of these massive black holes.Most obvious hypothesis is that they are the remnants of several different massive stars that exploded, which were formed by the accretion of matter in the galactic center.
°Miniature : Black holes with masses less than their heavyweight relatives.Mini black holes, like the more massive variety, lose mass over time through Hawking radiation and disappear.
Two black holes used to combine together and depredate the objects around them inorder to expand their size.In 1974,Stephen Hawking stated that black hole have their own temperature that is inversely proportional to its mass i.e, if temperature of black hole is low then its mass will be more.Due to this temperature they emit a specific type of radiations called Hawking-radiations.
The holy Quran states in surah Waqiah verse 75-77;
“But nay!I sware by the setting( falling or fading) of stars”
Like most large galaxies, the Milky Way is glued together by a supermassive black hole at its center, buried deep in the constellation Sagittarius. Our galaxy’s supermassive black hole, called Sagittarius A* (or Sgr A*), constantly pulls stars, dust and other matter inward, forming a stellar megalopolis 1 billion times denser than our corner of the galaxy. The event horizon of a black hole is the point of no return. Anything that passes this point will be swallowed by the black hole and forever vanish from our known universe.It attracts and shifts to no-where .Avi Loeb, chair of astronomy at Harvard University states that when an item gets near an event horizon, a witness would see the item’s image redden and dim as gravity distorted light coming from that item.Within the event horizon, one would find the black hole’s singularity, where previous research suggests all of the object’s mass has collapsed to an infinitely dense extent. This means the fabric of space and time around the singularity has also curved to an infinite degree, so the laws of physics as we currently know them break down.The event horizon protects us from the unknown physics near a singularity.
The size of an event horizon depends on the black hole’s mass.If Earth were compressed until it became a black hole, it would have a diameter of about 0.69 inches (17.4 millimeters)eg; if the Earth is compressed till the size of a Golf ball,here the golf ball is black hole with comprising size equal to golf ball but attraction of gravity with density and mass equal to an Earth. If the sun were converted to a black hole, it would be about 3.62 miles (5.84 kilometers) wide, about the size of a village or town.
There were many who used to accept black holes as theory but on 14th of september 2015 LIGO scientific laboratory for the first time, scientists have observed ripples in the fabric of spacetime called gravitational waves, arriving at the earth from a cataclysmic event in the distant universe. This confirms a major prediction of Albert Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity and opens an unprecedented new window onto the cosmos.
Gravitational waves carry information about their dramatic origins and about the nature of gravity that cannot otherwise be obtained. Physicists have concluded that the detected gravitational waves were produced during the final fraction of a second of the merger of two black holes to produce a single, more massive spinning black hole. This collision of two black holes had been predicted but never observed.
Black holes are regions in space-time where gravity’s pull is so powerful that not even light can escape its grasp. However, while light cannot escape a black hole, its extreme gravity warps space around it, which allows light to “echo,” bending around the back of the object. Thanks to this strange phenomenon, astronomers have, for the first time, observed the light from behind a black hole.
In a new study, researchers, led by Dan Wilkins, an astrophysicist at Stanford University in California, used the European Space Agency’s XMM-Newton and NASA’s NuSTAR space telescopes to observe the light from behind a black hole that’s 10 million times more massive than our sun and lies 800 million light-years away in the spiral galaxy.Bright flares of X-ray light are emitted by gas that falls into black holes from their accretion disks.
Let us find the answers in heavenly reveilation Al Quran in surah At Tariq verse 1-3;
“By the sky and the nightcomer-And what can make you know what is nightcomer? It is the piercing star”
In Arabic word الثاقب means piercing or bright (also defines pulsars) or cross holes.The light that penetrates the darkness and reaches far.The word الثاقب is originated from word ثقب ;
ثَقْب : – ثُقْب
– bore; hole; perforation; puncture
ثَقْب : – مَصْدَر ثَقَبَ
– boring; punching; piercing; perforating; drilling; puncturing,eat holes into Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity profoundly changed our thinking about fundamental concepts in physics, such as space and time. Anoter mysterious phenomena is Wormhole.wormholes – bridges connecting different points in spacetime, in theory providing shortcuts for space travellers.The question is does they really exist rest to be seen.Theoretically, a wormhole might connect extremely long distances such as a billion light years, or short distances such as a few meters, or different points in time, or even different universes.Some wormholes may be traversable, meaning humans may be able to travel through them.But for that they would need to be sufficiently large and kept open against the force of gravity, which tries to shut them. It is to push spacetime outward in direction that requires huge amounts of negative energy.
In Quran Almighty Allah says Suarh Nuh verse :15;
“Do you not see how Allah created seven heavens, one above the other”,(in layers)
In surah muminoon verse 17;
“We have indeed fashioned above you seven paths.15 Never were We unaware of the task of creation”
The word طرائق- taraiq has more than one meaning.This verse is providing clue of Meraaj of Prophet(wormholes and black holes)
The modern physical science says regarding crossing black hole that a human can do this only if the respective black hole is supermassive and isolated,and have to move with the speed more than of light.And till now scientific techonology couldn’t find such a racy and furious technology.and the end limit of speed of light is 3×10^8m/s – 299,792,485. m/s.If one can attain such high speed can lost in black hole.
It has been mentioned in Quran Surah Al-Isra and according to Sahih Hadith of sahih Muslim;
“I was brought al-Burg who is an animal white and long, larger than a donkey but smaller than a mule, who would place his hoof at a distance equal to the range of vision. I mounted it and came to the Temple (Bait-ul Maqdis in Jerusalem), then tethered it to the ring used by the prophets.”
The Arabic word البراق -Buraq means lightning or sparkling or bright.According to islamic point of veiw it a creature from the heavens that carried Prophet(PBUH) from Earth to heavens and back Meraaj .
In the sight of Allah, all information pertaining to this moment is kept in a Book.This Main Book, or as the Quran calls it, “The Mother of the Book,” holds every bit of information about everything: “Certainly there is no hidden thing in either heaven or earth which is not in a Clear Book.” (Qur’an, 27:75).